Everyone knows that when you give your assets to someone else, they always keep them safe. If this is true for individuals, it is certainly true for businesses.
Custodians always tell the truth and manage funds properly. They won't have any interest in taking the assets as an exchange operator would. Auditors tell the truth and can't be misled. That's because organizations that are regulated are incapable of lying and don't make mistakes.
First, some background. Here is a summary of how custodians make us more secure:
Previously, we might give Alice our crypto assets to hold. There were risks:
- Alice might take the assets and disappear.
- Alice might spend the assets and pretend that she still has them (fractional model).
- Alice might store the assets insecurely and they'll get stolen.
- Alice might give the assets to someone else by mistake or by force.
- Alice might lose access to the assets.
But "no worries", Alice has a custodian named Bob. Bob is dressed in a nice suit. He knows some politicians. And he drives a Porsche. "So you have nothing to worry about!". And look at all the benefits we get:
- Alice can't take the assets and disappear (unless she asks Bob or never gives them to Bob).
- Alice can't spend the assets and pretend that she still has them. (Unless she didn't give them to Bob or asks him for them.)
- Alice can't store the assets insecurely so they get stolen. (After all - she doesn't have any control over the withdrawal process from any of Bob's systems, right?)
- Alice can't give the assets to someone else by mistake or by force. (Bob will stop her, right Bob?)
- Alice can't lose access to the funds. (She'll always be present, sane, and remember all secrets, right?)
See - all problems are solved! All we have to worry about now is:
- Bob might take the assets and disappear.
- Bob might spend the assets and pretend that he still has them (fractional model).
- Bob might store the assets insecurely and they'll get stolen.
- Bob might give the assets to someone else by mistake or by force.
- Bob might lose access to the assets.
It's pretty simple. Before we had to trust Alice. Now we only have to trust Alice, Bob, and all the ways in which they communicate. Just think of how much more secure we are!
"On top of that", Bob assures us, "we're using a special wallet structure". Bob shows Alice a diagram. "We've broken the balance up and store it in lots of smaller wallets. That way", he assures her, "a thief can't take it all at once". And he points to a historic case where a large sum was taken "because it was stored in a single wallet... how stupid".
"Very early on, we used to have all the crypto in one wallet", he said, "and then one Christmas a hacker came and took it all. We call him the Grinch. Now we individually wrap each crypto and stick it under a binary search tree. The Grinch has never been back since."
"As well", Bob continues, "even if someone were to get in, we've got insurance. It covers all thefts and even coercion, collusion, and misplaced keys - only subject to the policy terms and conditions." And with that, he pulls out a phone-book sized contract and slams it on the desk with a thud. "Yep", he continues, "we're paying top dollar for one of the best policies in the country!"
"Can I read it?' Alice asks. "Sure," Bob says, "just as soon as our legal team is done with it. They're almost through the first chapter." He pauses, then continues. "And can you believe that sales guy Mike? He has the same year Porsche as me. I mean, what are the odds?"
"Do you use multi-sig?", Alice asks. "Absolutely!" Bob replies. "All our engineers are fully trained in multi-sig. Whenever we want to set up a new wallet, we generate 2 separate keys in an air-gapped process and store them in this proprietary system here. Look, it even requires the biometric signature from one of our team members to initiate any withdrawal." He demonstrates by pressing his thumb into the display. "We use a third-party cloud validation API to match the thumbprint and authorize each withdrawal. The keys are also backed up daily to an off-site third-party."
"Wow that's really impressive," Alice says, "but what if we need access for a withdrawal outside of office hours?" "Well that's no issue", Bob says, "just send us an email, call, or text message and we always have someone on staff to help out. Just another part of our strong commitment to all our customers!"
"What about Proof of Reserve?", Alice asks. "Of course", Bob replies, "though rather than publish any blockchain addresses or signed transaction, for privacy we just do a SHA256 refactoring of the inverse hash modulus for each UTXO nonce and combine the smart contract coefficient consensus in our hyperledger lightning node. But it's really simple to use." He pushes a button and a large green checkmark appears on a screen. "See - the algorithm ran through and reserves are proven."
"Wow", Alice says, "you really know your stuff! And that is easy to use! What about fiat balances?" "Yeah, we have an auditor too", Bob replies, "Been using him for a long time so we have quite a strong relationship going! We have special books we give him every year and he's very efficient! Checks the fiat, crypto, and everything all at once!"
"We used to have a nice offline multi-sig setup we've been using without issue for the past 5 years, but I think we'll move all our funds over to your facility," Alice says. "Awesome", Bob replies, "Thanks so much! This is perfect timing too - my Porsche got a dent on it this morning. We have the paperwork right over here." "Great!", Alice replies.
And with that, Alice gets out her pen and Bob gets the contract. "Don't worry", he says, "you can take your crypto-assets back anytime you like - just subject to our cancellation policy. Our annual management fees are also super low and we don't adjust them often".
How many holes have to exist for your funds to get stolen? Just one.
Why are we taking a powerful offline multi-sig setup, widely used globally in hundreds of different/lacking regulatory environments with 0 breaches to date, and circumventing it by a demonstrably weak third party layer? And paying a great expense to do so?
If you go through the list of breaches in the past 2 years to highly credible organizations
, you go through the list of major corporate frauds (only the ones we know about)
, you go through the list of all the times platforms have lost funds
, you go through the list of times and ways that people have lost their crypto from identity theft, hot wallet exploits, extortion, etc... and then you go through this custodian with a fine-tooth comb and truly believe they have value to add far beyond what you could, sticking your funds in a wallet (or set of wallets) they control exclusively is the absolute worst possible way to take advantage of that security.
The best way to add security for crypto-assets is to make a stronger multi-sig. With one custodian, what you are doing is giving them your cryptocurrency and hoping they're honest, competent, and flawlessly secure. It's no different than storing it on a really secure exchange. Maybe the insurance will cover you. Didn't work for Bitpay in 2015. Didn't work for Yapizon in 2017. Insurance has never paid a claim in the entire history of cryptocurrency. But maybe you'll get lucky. Maybe your exact scenario will buck the trend and be what they're willing to cover. After the large deductible and hopefully without a long and expensive court battle.
And you want to advertise this increase in risk, the lapse of judgement, an accident waiting to happen, as though it's some kind of benefit to customers ("Free institutional-grade storage for your digital assets.")? And then some people are writing to the OSC that custodians should be mandatory for all funds on every exchange platform? That this somehow will make Canadians as a whole more secure or better protected compared with standard air-gapped multi-sig? On what planet?
Most of the problems in Canada stemmed from one thing - a lack of transparency. If Canadians had known what a joke Quadriga was - it wouldn't have grown to lose $400m from hard-working Canadians from coast to coast to coast. And Gerald Cotten would be in jail, not wherever he is now (at best, rotting peacefully). EZ-BTC and mister Dave Smilie would have been a tiny little scam to his friends, not a multi-million dollar fraud. Einstein would have got their act together or been shut down BEFORE losing millions and millions more in people's funds generously donated to criminals. MapleChange wouldn't have even been a thing. And maybe we'd know a little more about CoinTradeNewNote - like how much was lost in there. Almost all of the major losses with cryptocurrency exchanges involve deception with unbacked funds.
So it's great to see transparency reports from BitBuy and ShakePay where someone independently verified the backing. The only thing we don't have is:
- ANY CERTAINTY BALANCES WEREN'T EXCLUDED. Quadriga's largest account was $70m. 80% of funds are in 20% of accounts (Pareto principle). All it takes is excluding a few really large accounts - and nobody's the wiser. A fractional platform can easily pass any audit this way.
- ANY VISIBILITY WHATSOEVER INTO THE CUSTODIANS. BitBuy put out their report before moving all the funds to their custodian and ShakePay apparently can't even tell us who the custodian is. That's pretty important considering that basically all of the funds are now stored there.
- ANY IDEA ABOUT THE OTHER EXCHANGES. In order for this to be effective, it has to be the norm. It needs to be "unusual" not to know. If obscurity is the norm, then it's super easy for people like Gerald Cotten and Dave Smilie to blend right in.
It's not complicated to validate cryptocurrency assets. They need to exist, they need to be spendable, and they need to cover the total balances. There are plenty of credible people and firms across the country that have the capacity to reasonably perform this validation. Having more frequent checks by different, independent, parties who publish transparent reports is far more valuable than an annual check by a single "more credible/official" party who does the exact same basic checks and may or may not publish anything. Here's an example set of requirements that could be mandated:
- First report within 1 month of launching, another within 3 months, and further reports at minimum every 6 months thereafter.
- No auditor can be repeated within a 12 month period.
- All reports must be public, identifying the auditor and the full methodology used.
- All auditors must be independent of the firm being audited with no conflict of interest.
- Reports must include the percentage of each asset backed, and how it's backed.
- The auditor publishes a hash list, which lists a hash of each customer's information and balances that were included. Hash is one-way encryption so privacy is fully preserved. Every customer can use this to have 100% confidence they were included.
- If we want more extensive requirements on audits, these should scale upward based on the total assets at risk on the platform, and whether the platform has loaned their assets out.
There are ways to structure audits such that neither crypto assets nor customer information are ever put at risk, and both can still be properly validated and publicly verifiable. There are also ways to structure audits such that they are completely reasonable for small platforms and don't inhibit innovation in any way. By making the process as reasonable as possible, we can completely eliminate any reason/excuse that an honest platform would have for not being audited. That is arguable far more important than any incremental improvement we might get from mandating "the best of the best" accountants. Right now we have nothing mandated and tons of Canadians using offshore exchanges with no oversight whatsoever.
Transparency does not prove crypto assets are safe. CoinTradeNewNote, Flexcoin ($600k), and Canadian Bitcoins ($100k) are examples where crypto-assets were breached from platforms in Canada. All of them were online wallets and used no multi-sig as far as any records show. This is consistent with what we see globally - air-gapped multi-sig wallets have an impeccable record, while other schemes tend to suffer breach after breach. We don't actually know how much CoinTrader lost because there was no visibility. Rather than publishing details of what happened, the co-founder of CoinTrader silently moved on to found another platform - the "most trusted way to buy and sell crypto" - a site that has no information whatsoever (that I could find) on the storage practices and a FAQ advising that “[t]rading cryptocurrency is completely safe” and that having your own wallet is “entirely up to you! You can certainly keep cryptocurrency, or fiat, or both, on the app.” Doesn't sound like much was learned here, which is really sad to see.
It's not that complicated or unreasonable to set up a proper hardware wallet. Multi-sig can be learned in a single course. Something the equivalent complexity of a driver's license test could prevent all the cold storage exploits we've seen to date - even globally. Platform operators have a key advantage in detecting and preventing fraud - they know their customers far better than any custodian ever would. The best job that custodians can do is to find high integrity individuals and train them to form even better wallet signatories. Rather than mandating that all platforms expose themselves to arbitrary third party risks, regulations should center around ensuring that all signatories are background-checked, properly trained, and using proper procedures. We also need to make sure that signatories are empowered with rights and responsibilities to reject and report fraud. They need to know that they can safely challenge and delay a transaction - even if it turns out they made a mistake. We need to have an environment where mistakes are brought to the surface and dealt with. Not one where firms and people feel the need to hide what happened. In addition to a knowledge-based test, an auditor can privately interview each signatory to make sure they're not in coercive situations, and we should make sure they can freely and anonymously report any issues without threat of retaliation.
A proper multi-sig has each signature held by a separate person and is governed by policies and mutual decisions instead of a hierarchy. It includes at least one redundant signature. For best results, 3of4, 3of5, 3of6, 4of5, 4of6, 4of7, 5of6, or 5of7.
History has demonstrated over and over again the risk of hot wallets even to highly credible organizations. Nonetheless, many platforms have hot wallets for convenience. While such losses are generally compensated by platforms without issue (for example Poloniex, Bitstamp, Bitfinex, Gatecoin, Coincheck, Bithumb, Zaif, CoinBene, Binance, Bitrue, Bitpoint, Upbit, VinDAX, and now KuCoin), the public tends to focus more on cases that didn't end well. Regardless of what systems are employed, there is always some level of risk. For that reason, most members of the public would prefer to see third party insurance.
Rather than trying to convince third party profit-seekers to provide comprehensive insurance and then relying on an expensive and slow legal system to enforce against whatever legal loopholes they manage to find each and every time something goes wrong, insurance could be run through multiple exchange operators and regulators, with the shared interest of having a reputable industry, keeping costs down, and taking care of Canadians. For example, a 4 of 7 multi-sig insurance fund held between 5 independent exchange operators and 2 regulatory bodies. All Canadian exchanges could pay premiums at a set rate based on their needed coverage, with a higher price paid for hot wallet coverage (anything not an air-gapped multi-sig cold wallet). Such a model would be much cheaper to manage, offer better coverage, and be much more reliable to payout when needed. The kind of coverage you could have under this model is unheard of. You could even create something like the CDIC to protect Canadians who get their trading accounts hacked if they can sufficiently prove the loss is legitimate. In cases of fraud, gross negligence, or insolvency, the fund can be used to pay affected users directly (utilizing the last transparent balance report in the worst case), something which private insurance would never touch. While it's recommended to have official policies for coverage, a model where members vote would fully cover edge cases. (Could be similar to the Supreme Court where justices vote based on case law.)
Such a model could fully protect all Canadians across all platforms. You can have a fiat coverage governed by legal agreements, and crypto-asset coverage governed by both multi-sig and legal agreements. It could be practical, affordable, and inclusive.
Now, we are at a crossroads. We can happily give up our freedom, our innovation, and our money. We can pay hefty expenses to auditors, lawyers, and regulators year after year (and make no mistake - this cost will grow to many millions or even billions as the industry grows - and it will be borne by all Canadians on every platform because platforms are not going to eat up these costs at a loss). We can make it nearly impossible for any new platform to enter the marketplace, forcing Canadians to use the same stagnant platforms year after year. We can centralize and consolidate the entire industry into 2 or 3 big players and have everyone else fail (possibly to heavy losses of users of those platforms). And when a flawed security model doesn't work and gets breached, we can make it even more complicated with even more people in suits making big money doing the job that blockchain was supposed to do in the first place. We can build a system which is so intertwined and dependent on big government, traditional finance, and central bankers that it's future depends entirely on that of the fiat system, of fractional banking, and of government bail-outs. If we choose this path, as history has shown us over and over again, we can not go back, save for revolution. Our children and grandchildren will still be paying the consequences of what we decided today.
Or, we can find solutions that work. We can maintain an open and innovative environment while making the adjustments we need to make to fully protect Canadian investors and cryptocurrency users, giving easy and affordable access to cryptocurrency for all Canadians on the platform of their choice, and creating an environment in which entrepreneurs and problem solvers can bring those solutions forward easily. None of the above precludes innovation in any way, or adds any unreasonable cost - and these three policies would demonstrably eliminate or resolve all 109 historic cases as studied here
- that's every single case researched so far going back to 2011. It includes every loss that was studied so far not just in Canada but globally as well.
Unfortunately, finding answers is the least challenging part. Far more challenging is to get platform operators and regulators to agree on anything. My last post
got no response whatsoever, and while the OSC has told me they're happy for industry feedback, I believe my opinion alone is fairly meaningless. This takes the whole community working together to solve. So please let me know your thoughts. Please take the time to upvote and share this with people. Please - let's get this solved and not leave it up to other people to do.
Facts/background/sources (skip if you like):
- The inspiration for the paragraph about splitting wallets was an actual quote from a Canadian company providing custodial services in response to the OSC consultation paper: "We believe that it will be in the in best interests of investors to prohibit pooled crypto assets or ‘floats’. Most Platforms pool assets, citing reasons of practicality and expense. The recent hack of the world’s largest Platform – Binance – demonstrates the vulnerability of participants’ assets when such concessions are made. In this instance, the Platform’s entire hot wallet of Bitcoins, worth over $40 million, was stolen, facilitated in part by the pooling of client crypto assets." "the maintenance of participants (and Platform) crypto assets across multiple wallets distributes the related risk and responsibility of security - reducing the amount of insurance coverage required and making insurance coverage more readily obtainable". For the record, their reply also said nothing whatsoever about multi-sig or offline storage.
- In addition to the fact that the $40m hack represented only one "hot wallet" of Binance, and they actually had the vast majority of assets in other wallets (including mostly cold wallets), multiple real cases have clearly demonstrated that risk is still present with multiple wallets. Bitfinex, VinDAX, Bithumb, Altsbit, BitPoint, Cryptopia, and just recently KuCoin all had multiple wallets breached all at the same time, and may represent a significantly larger impact on customers than the Binance breach which was fully covered by Binance. To represent that simply having multiple separate wallets under the same security scheme is a comprehensive way to reduce risk is just not true.
- Private insurance has historically never covered a single loss in the cryptocurrency space (at least, not one that I was able to find), and there are notable cases where massive losses were not covered by insurance. Bitpay in 2015 and Yapizon in 2017 both had insurance policies that didn't pay out during the breach, even after a lengthly court process. The same insurance that ShakePay is presently using (and announced to much fanfare) was describe by their CEO himself as covering “physical theft of the media where the private keys are held,” which is something that has never historically happened. As was said with regard to the same policy in 2018 - “I don’t find it surprising that Lloyd’s is in this space,” said Johnson, adding that to his mind the challenge for everybody is figuring out how to structure these policies so that they are actually protective. “You can create an insurance policy that protects no one – you know there are so many caveats to the policy that it’s not super protective.”
- The most profitable policy for a private insurance company is one with the most expensive premiums that they never have to pay a claim on. They have no inherent incentive to take care of people who lost funds. It's "cheaper" to take the reputational hit and fight the claim in court. The more money at stake, the more the insurance provider is incentivized to avoid payout. They're not going to insure the assets unless they have reasonable certainty to make a profit by doing so, and they're not going to pay out a massive sum unless it's legally forced. Private insurance is always structured to be maximally profitable to the insurance provider.
- The circumvention of multi-sig was a key factor in the massive Bitfinex hack of over $60m of bitcoin, which today still sits being slowly used and is worth over $3b. While Bitfinex used a qualified custodian Bitgo, which was and still is active and one of the industry leaders of custodians, and they set up 2 of 3 multi-sig wallets, the entire system was routed through Bitfinex, such that Bitfinex customers could initiate the withdrawals in a "hot" fashion. This feature was also a hit with the hacker. The multi-sig was fully circumvented.
- Bitpay in 2015 was another example of a breach that stole 5,000 bitcoins. This happened not through the exploit of any system in Bitpay, but because the CEO of a company they worked with got their computer hacked and the hackers were able to request multiple bitcoin purchases, which Bitpay honoured because they came from the customer's computer legitimately. Impersonation is a very common tactic used by fraudsters, and methods get more extreme all the time.
- A notable case in Canada was the Canadian Bitcoins exploit. Funds were stored on a server in a Rogers Data Center, and the attendee was successfully convinced to reboot the server "in safe mode" with a simple phone call, thus bypassing the extensive security and enabling the theft.
- Over $200m has been stolen impersonating users of cryptocurrency platforms by one group alone. Here's a list of 10 social engineering attacks against corporate companies. Here's an even larger case. While verification methods are improving, so are methods of identity theft and social engineering. We now have sim swapping and deep fake videos to contend with. Hackers have massive database sets of personal information they can utilize. As the sums at stake increase, so to will the level of effort criminals are willing to undertake. Obscurity for an insecure system will only postpone an attack until the "jackpot" is large enough.
- The very nature of custodians circumvents multi-sig. This is because custodians are not just having to secure the assets against some sort of physical breach but against any form of social engineering, modification of orders, fraudulent withdrawal attempts, etc... If the security practices of signatories in a multi-sig arrangement are such that the breach risk of one signatory is 1 in 100, the requirement of 3 independent signatures makes the risk of theft 1 in 1,000,000. Since hackers tend to exploit the weakest link, a comparable custodian has to make the entry and exit points of their platform 10,000 times more secure than one of those signatories to provide equivalent protection. And if the signatories beef up their security by only 10x, the risk is now 1 in 1,000,000,000. The custodian has to be 1,000,000 times more secure. The larger and more complex a system is, the more potential vulnerabilities exist in it, and the fewer people can understand how the system works when performing upgrades. Even if a system is completely secure today, one has to also consider how that system might evolve over time or work with different members.
- By contrast, offline multi-signature solutions have an extremely solid record, and in the entire history of cryptocurrency exchange incidents which I've studied (listed here), there has only been one incident (796 exchange in 2015) involving an offline multi-signature wallet. It happened because the customer's bitcoin address was modified by hackers, and the amount that was stolen ($230k) was immediately covered by the exchange operators. Basically, the platform operators were tricked into sending a legitimate withdrawal request to the wrong address because hackers exploited their platform to change that address. Such an issue would not be prevented in any way by the use of a custodian, as that custodian has no oversight whatsoever to the exchange platform. It's practical for all exchange operators to test large withdrawal transactions as a general policy, regardless of what model is used, and general best practice is to diagnose and fix such an exploit as soon as it occurs.
- False promises on the backing of funds played a huge role in the downfall of Quadriga, and it's been exposed over and over again (MyCoin, PlusToken, Bitsane, Bitmarket, EZBTC, IDAX). Even today, customers have extremely limited certainty on whether their funds in exchanges are actually being backed or how they're being backed. While this issue is not unique to cryptocurrency exchanges, the complexity of the technology and the lack of any regulation or standards makes problems more widespread, and there is no "central bank" to come to the rescue as in the 2008 financial crisis or during the great depression when "9,000 banks failed".
- In addition to fraudulent operations, the industry is full of cases where operators have suffered breaches and not reported them. Most recently, Einstein was the largest case in Canada, where ongoing breaches and fraud were perpetrated against the platform for multiple years and nobody found out until the platform collapsed completely. While fraud and breaches suck to deal with, they suck even more when not dealt with. Lack of visibility played a role in the largest downfalls of Mt. Gox, Cryptsy, and Bitgrail. In some cases, platforms are alleged to have suffered a hack and keep operating without admitting it at all, such as CoinBene.
- It surprises some to learn that a cryptographic solution has already existed since 2013, and gained widespread support in 2014 after Mt. Gox. Proof of Reserves is a full cryptographic proof that allows any customer using an exchange to have complete certainty that their crypto-assets are fully backed by the platform in real-time. This is accomplished by proving that assets exist on the blockchain, are spendable, and fully cover customer deposits. It does not prove safety of assets or backing of fiat assets.
- If we didn't care about privacy at all, a platform could publish their wallet addresses, sign a partial transaction, and put the full list of customer information and balances out publicly. Customers can each check that they are on the list, that the balances are accurate, that the total adds up, and that it's backed and spendable on the blockchain. Platforms who exclude any customer take a risk because that customer can easily check and see they were excluded. So together with all customers checking, this forms a full proof of backing of all crypto assets.
- However, obviously customers care about their private information being published. Therefore, a hash of the information can be provided instead. Hash is one-way encryption. The hash allows the customer to validate inclusion (by hashing their own known information), while anyone looking at the list of hashes cannot determine the private information of any other user. All other parts of the scheme remain fully intact. A model like this is in use on the exchange CoinFloor in the UK.
- A Merkle tree can provide even greater privacy. Instead of a list of balances, the balances are arranged into a binary tree. A customer starts from their node, and works their way to the top of the tree. For example, they know they have 5 BTC, they plus 1 other customer hold 7 BTC, they plus 2-3 other customers hold 17 BTC, etc... until they reach the root where all the BTC are represented. Thus, there is no way to find the balances of other individual customers aside from one unidentified customer in this case.
- Proposals such as this had the backing of leaders in the community including Nic Carter, Greg Maxwell, and Zak Wilcox. Substantial and significant effort started back in 2013, with massive popularity in 2014. But what became of that effort? Very little. Exchange operators continue to refuse to give visibility. Despite the fact this information can often be obtained through trivial blockchain analysis, no Canadian platform has ever provided any wallet addresses publicly. As described by the CEO of Newton "For us to implement some kind of realtime Proof of Reserves solution, which I'm not opposed to, it would have to ... Preserve our users' privacy, as well as our own. Some kind of zero-knowledge proof". Kraken describes here in more detail why they haven't implemented such a scheme. According to professor Eli Ben-Sasson, when he spoke with exchanges, none were interested in implementing Proof of Reserves.
- And yet, Kraken's places their reasoning on a page called "Proof of Reserves". More recently, both BitBuy and ShakePay have released reports titled "Proof of Reserves and Security Audit". Both reports contain disclaimers against being audits. Both reports trust the customer list provided by the platform, leaving the open possibility that multiple large accounts could have been excluded from the process. Proof of Reserves is a blockchain validation where customers see the wallets on the blockchain. The report from Kraken is 5 years old, but they leave it described as though it was just done a few weeks ago. And look at what they expect customers to do for validation. When firms represent something being "Proof of Reserve" when it's not, this is like a farmer growing fruit with pesticides and selling it in a farmers market as organic produce - except that these are people's hard-earned life savings at risk here. Platforms are misrepresenting the level of visibility in place and deceiving the public by their misuse of this term. They haven't proven anything.
- Fraud isn't a problem that is unique to cryptocurrency. Fraud happens all the time. Enron, WorldCom, Nortel, Bear Stearns, Wells Fargo, Moser Baer, Wirecard, Bre-X, and Nicola are just some of the cases where frauds became large enough to become a big deal (and there are so many countless others). These all happened on 100% reversible assets despite regulations being in place. In many of these cases, the problems happened due to the over-complexity of the financial instruments. For example, Enron had "complex financial statements [which] were confusing to shareholders and analysts", creating "off-balance-sheet vehicles, complex financing structures, and deals so bewildering that few people could understand them". In cryptocurrency, we are often combining complex financial products with complex technologies and verification processes. We are naïve if we think problems like this won't happen. It is awkward and uncomfortable for many people to admit that they don't know how something works. If we want "money of the people" to work, the solutions have to be simple enough that "the people" can understand them, not so confusing that financial professionals and technology experts struggle to use or understand them.
- For those who question the extent to which an organization can fool their way into a security consultancy role, HB Gary should be a great example to look at. Prior to trying to out anonymous, HB Gary was being actively hired by multiple US government agencies and others in the private sector (with glowing testimonials). The published articles and hosted professional security conferences. One should also look at this list of data breaches from the past 2 years. Many of them are large corporations, government entities, and technology companies. These are the ones we know about. Undoubtedly, there are many more that we do not know about. If HB Gary hadn't been "outted" by anonymous, would we have known they were insecure? If the same breach had happened outside of the public spotlight, would it even have been reported? Or would HB Gary have just deleted the Twitter posts, brought their site back up, done a couple patches, and kept on operating as though nothing had happened?
- In the case of Quadriga, the facts are clear. Despite past experience with platforms such as MapleChange in Canada and others around the world, no guidance or even the most basic of a framework was put in place by regulators. By not clarifying any sort of legal framework, regulators enabled a situation where a platform could be run by former criminal Mike Dhanini/Omar Patryn, and where funds could be held fully unchecked by one person. At the same time, the lack of regulation deterred legitimate entities from running competing platforms and Quadriga was granted a money services business license for multiple years of operation, which gave the firm the appearance of legitimacy. Regulators did little to protect Canadians despite Quadriga failing to file taxes from 2016 onward. The entire administrative team had resigned and this was public knowledge. Many people had suspicions of what was going on, including Ryan Mueller, who forwarded complaints to the authorities. These were ignored, giving Gerald Cotten the opportunity to escape without justice.
- There are multiple issues with the SOC II model including the prohibitive cost (you have to find a third party accounting firm and the prices are not even listed publicly on any sites), the requirement of operating for a year (impossible for new platforms), and lack of any public visibility (SOC II are private reports that aren't shared outside the people in suits).
- Securities frameworks are expensive. Sarbanes-Oxley is estimated to cost $5.1 million USD/yr for the average Fortune 500 company in the United States. Since "Fortune 500" represents the top 500 companies, that means well over $2.55 billion USD (~$3.4 billion CAD) is going to people in suits. Isn't the problem of trust and verification the exact problem that the blockchain is supposed to solve?
- To use Quadriga as justification for why custodians or SOC II or other advanced schemes are needed for platforms is rather silly, when any framework or visibility at all, or even the most basic of storage policies, would have prevented the whole thing. It's just an embarrassment.
- We are now seeing regulators take strong action. CoinSquare in Canada with multi-million dollar fines. BitMex from the US, criminal charges and arrests. OkEx, with full disregard of withdrawals and no communication. Who's next?
- We have a unique window today where we can solve these problems, and not permanently destroy innovation with unreasonable expectations, but we need to act quickly. This is a unique historic time that will never come again.
We are a blockchain based network of millions of people who get paid to post on Face| play_arrow Play videoto see how it works or read whitepaper Live with 55% bonus Community Pre-Sale Community Pre-Sale Public Pre-Sale Main Sale 55% bonus 45% bonus 20%-0% bonus 55% bonus 45% bonus 20%-0% bonus 55% bonus 45% bonus 20%-0% bonus Tokens sold: 2734335 Payment methodsETH from Walletswap_vertETH from Exchangecredit_cardCredit Card Why contribute 100+ Working business Over 100 brands like Nestle, Mars, Philips and Microsoft are already paying to use Unboxed services. 40k+ Big community Over 44k active members in our Telegram channel and it is still growing! 15 Experienced team 15 marketing and blockchain professionals supported by a solid advisory board. Trusted by brands Empowered by people At Unboxed Network everyone is an influencer. Everyone can earn money from social media. Andrew Wille, US Earnings from Tep wireless $100 Julie Pearson, US Earnings from SugaryCharm $50 Rebeka Liepina, Latvia Earnings from Karen Millen €100 Get your share of $36 Billion Join our growing community of people getting paid to do what they love to get a share of the $36 billion brands are spending annually on Facebook Ads. Using Unboxed is easy. For every brand related photo you upload and for every comment you post, you get paid.
Join now!If you join today, we’ll give you free Unboxed Tokens (NBOX) to use on our network! Let’s become the world’s biggest word-of-mouth network We’re aiming to raise $15 million through our upcoming ICO, a new way of funding business development for innovative up-and-comers. This will allow us (and you) to create the best word-of-mouth network ever, reaching more brands and more people. Download
Download Why Unboxed is a Game Changer Combining the convenience of Paid Ads with the effectiveness of word-of-mouth marketing Facebook Ads Word-of-mouth E a s y t o l a unch a c ampaign E a s y t o ta r get a u dien c e A uthentic c on t ent c r ea t ed and pos t ed b y people L ow er c ost per en g agement Need t o in v est in c r eating en g aging c on t ent C ost per en g agement is c onstantly inc r easing Diffi c ult t o sc ale T ime c on s uming management How the Network works Brands create a campaign, then our trusted network of thousands of Marketing Experts find the best Unboxers for the project. An Unboxer is a social media user like you who gets paid for posting and engaging. And to make payments instant and secure, we use Escrow for distributing funds. B rand s ubmi t s p r o du ct c ampaign and deposi t s f unds t o E S C R O W M ar k eting e xpe r t s bac k ed b y AI pick best-ma t ching U nb ox ers t o be in v ol v ed in a c ampaign Invi t ed U nb ox ers joins c ampaign th e y li k e and c r ea t e ph ot o or video c on t ent 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 M ar k eting e xpe r t s r e vi e w and app r ov e c on t ent U nb ox ers post c on t ent on s ocial ne t w orks T a r get a u dien c e en g age with c on t ent U nb ox ers & M ar k eting e xpe r t s a r e paid f or posting and en g aging F I A T IS E X C H ANGED T O UBX T OKENS THROUGH THE BUYB A CK PROGRAM ON E X C H ANGE AND RELEASED T O CO N TRIBU T ORS Role of blockchain Token economy to motivate striving for excellence and guarantees immediate and cheap micro-transactions in a private and secure manner. Faster and cheaper transactions Members’ motivation Privacy and security U nb ox ed t o k en Token distribution Total supply: 750,000,000 51% Public tokens 19% Team, Advisors & Partners(locked 1y) 5% Airdrop and referral program 10% Customer and MarketingExperts acquisition(can be used at rate of 1/12 per month) 15% Reserve fund for futurefinancing (locked 1y) Roadmap Raised funds from 12 angel investors Launched Unboxed platform Started to build a network of Marketing Experts Launching a network of Marketing experts Starting global expansion to 100+ countries Graduated from enterprise focused Alchemist accelerator Brands like Philips, Huawei, Nestle, Mars chose Unboxed as a trusted partner Launched an MVP Conducting campaigns in U.S., Canada, UK, Germany, Norway etc Introducing tokens 2015 2016 2017 2018 People behind Unboxed add Tadas Deksnys CEO & FOUNDER Started an official career at 17 as a web developer. Sold 1st venture at 18 (small exit). Created a social network for pet owners and built a marketplace on top of it, became a category leader and sold the company in 2014. Founded 3rd company - Unboxed. Graduated from the leading US based accelerator The Alchemist. Raised funds from 12 investors Vilius Vaičiulis Software Developer Ieva Mackevičiūtė Marketing Specialist add Donatas Smailys CBDO Established first startup at age of 24. Became CEO of a startup incubator backed by the biggest tech university in Lithuania. Member of Digital Leaders group at World Economic Forum. Organizer of TEDxKaunas, public speaker. Established and is now an executive manager of Lithuanian Startups Association add Augustinas Tarabilda Business Developer Started investing in bitcoin in early 2014. Worked with Bankera for the pre-ICO, ICO and post-ICO period. Started his first business at age of 12. Have been in e-commerce for well over 7 years. Graduated top business university in the region add Theodosis Mourouzis, PhD Blockchain Holds a BA/MA in Mathematics and a MSc in Pure Mathematics (PART III - Number Theory Group) from University of Cambridge. Managing Director at Cyprus Blockchain technologies. Director of Analytics & Business Intelligence at Cyprus International Institute of Management. Research Fellow at the UCL Centre for Blockchain Technologies add Dovydas Reinikevičius CMO Founder of digital marketing agency BeeMarketing, working with top brands in the region and globally. Digital marketing campaigns for McDonalds, Frosch, Atea and others. 8 years of experience with digital marketing. Started career at 12. Introduced flashmob movement to Lithuanian community Andrius Gelžinis Junior Business Developer Vėjūnė Krašinskienė Marketing Specialist add Andrius Pocius UI/UX Founder of BORN IN IDEA in 2003, a leading provider of web design and development in Eastern Europe, serving top brands both in the region and globally;. Experienced Business Development Manager with focus and expertise in UX/UI and CRO of digital products.. Developing smartcustomizer.com project for last 3 years add Vytenis Narušis CTO National programming competition finalist. Graduated in Software Engineering from Kaunas University of Technology within the top 1%. Worked at the international software development company Devbridge Group. Developed software for multinational multi-million revenue, organizations like Chicago Mercantile Exchange, Louis Dreyfus, Morningstar Justina Valytė Senior Account Manager Jonas Smailys Sales Development Representative Lauryna Tamošiūnaitė Senior Account Manager add Miglė Rastauskaitė Marketing Specialist Advisors add Juergen Brock Former CMO for Americas at Fujitsu, now working in the global Fujitsu CMO team add Daniel Tawiah Worked as VP of global brand digital marketing innovation at Nike add Cristobal Alonso Global CEO and ICO advisor at Startup Wise Guys add Paul Scott Helped raise 30M USD for Faceter add Tadas Langaitis CFA certified professional, Angel investor, partner at an investment bank, worked in the first VC fund in the Baltic states. add Juan Otero Part of the Ex-Management Team at Booking.com add Tomas Ramanauskas Creatively guided dozens of brands such as Carlsberg, Swedbank, Nike, Telia, Maxima, and many, many others add Arnoldas Rogoznyj Founder of LOGIN conferences add Javier E. Gonzalez Former Rocket Internet MD global venture-builder, founder of the Global Crypto Economy Club at INSEAD. Road show What's new with Unboxed Profile image for Unboxed NetworkUnboxed Network23h Photo from @unboxed.network on Facebook on Unboxed Network at 6/29/18 at 1:13PM Unboxed Network. Influencer Marketing 2.0 is visiting Chainers conference in #Seoul! Share your ideas with Tadas & Donatas there!
0206 Profile image for Unboxed_network Unboxed @Unboxed_network Twitter Logo Hey! 🙌☺️ We know you like Flash Quiz 😏 That’s why we will make one today! Join us on Telegram, answer 3 simple questions and take 100 NBOX! 💰 We will count down until the beginning of the quiz in our TG group. Use a shortcut and enter it now: bit.ly/2JzTJXz
Photo from @Unboxed_network on Twitter on Unboxed_network at 6/27/18 at 1:20PM Reply Retweet Like 27 Jun 2018 Inside Unboxed Network - Medium5d Photo from @https://medium.com/feed/inside-unboxed
on Blog on Inside Unboxed Network - Medium at 6/25/18 at 10:12AM Why did Juergen Brock join Unboxed advisors family?
Give a warm welcome to Unboxed Advisor — Juergen Brock! A personality that needs a book to be described! He worked for Apple in the 90s, has a background in developing and selling startups, worked for Fujitsu in Germany, America and now in Japan. Ever since he finished his Phd in Marketing, Information Technology & International Business in 2000, he has been teaching, writing articles and books ...Read More
Profile image for Unboxed NetworkUnboxed Network9d Photo from @unboxed.network on Facebook on Unboxed Network at 6/20/18 at 5:59PM Unboxed CBDO shares his thoughts from #London conference BAIConf! Find out what Donatas has experienced there and what are the future plans for Unboxed!
0368 Profile image for Unboxed NetworkUnboxed Network2d Photo from @unboxed.network on Facebook on Unboxed Network at 6/28/18 at 11:52AM Please welcome our new Unboxed Advisor Board member - Javier E. Gonzalez! 🎉🙌
He is a former Rocket Internet MD (global venture-builder) and currently provides boutique advisory services (Capital raise and M&A) for ventures!
A great mind with a wide range of expertise. Want to find out more? 🤔 Read here➡️ bit.ly/2lDnHzt
2281 Profile image for Unboxed_network Unboxed @Unboxed_network Twitter Logo Unboxed Network - Influencer Marketing 2.0 ready to revolutionize $36 billion market! Get a 55% Community Pre-Sale bonus before it’s too late! ➡bit.ly/2Mkiojy
Photo from @Unboxed_network on Twitter on Unboxed_network at 6/26/18 at 5:43PM Reply Retweet Like 26 Jun 2018 Profile image for Unboxed_network Unboxed @Unboxed_network Twitter Logo Unboxed Network now has a subreddit! 🎉 🙌 Join our community here!⭐️🚀 ➡️ bit.ly/2lpO8sd
Photo from @Unboxed_network on Twitter on Unboxed_network at 6/25/18 at 9:39AM Reply Retweet Like 25 Jun 2018 Profile image for Unboxed NetworkUnboxed Network2d Photo from @unboxed.network on Facebook on Unboxed Network at 6/27/18 at 5:50PM Unboxed Network - Influencer Marketing 2.0 ready to revolutionize $36 billion market! Get a 55% Community Pre-Sale bonus before it’s too late! ➡http://bit.ly/2Mkiojy
120 Profile image for Unboxed NetworkUnboxed Network4d Photo from @unboxed.network on Facebook on Unboxed Network at 6/26/18 at 11:38AM Hey, it's Unboxed CEO & Founder Tadas Deksnys! 💪 Hear out what he has to share with you guys 📣🚀
1316 Profile image for Unboxed_network Unboxed @Unboxed_network Twitter Logo Referral program is here! 🙌 Your FRIEND will receive 5% extra NBOX tokens and YOU receive 10% ETH/USD from the amount your friend contributed! 💪 Check this out: bit.ly/2MLYDCD
Photo from @Unboxed_network on Twitter on Unboxed_network at 6/21/18 at 2:45PM Reply Retweet Like 21 Jun 2018 LOAD MORE FAQ To Do Join our network To Know ICO Whitepaper Team Roadmap Contact us Lithuania Studentų st. 3A, Kaunas, 08104 +370 687 42657 E-mail us Send Me Updates On Unboxed ICO Be the first to know about what's new at Unboxed
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We were headed to London to attend the CoinSummit Bitcoin conference! CoinSummit London is a two day event connecting virtual currency entrepreneurs, angel and VC investors, hedge fund professionals and others who are looking to learn and network in the virtual currency industry. We can’t wait to tell you more about the topics! Binance founder and CEO Changpeng Zhao has taken to Twitter to express his disappointment to what he called “irresponsible journalism” and to reassure Binance customers that there is no conflict between the regulations of the Japanese Financial Services Agency and his company. Changpeng Zhao Responds on Twitter to “Irresponsible Journalism” As previously reported by NewsBTC, the Nikkei The CoinSummit conference was a Bitcoin conference held in London a couple weeks back, from July 10-11. As well as being a platinum sponsor, Jeffrey Smith, the Co-owner of CEX.IO and Ghash.IO, was also a speaker at the conference where he discussed Bitcoin exchanges in a panel. Unfortunately their customer service was absolutely useless and didn’t even know what bitcoin was. I was told it would take 5-7 days to refund my order and I needed to rebook. I canceled my order, and proceeded to place another order using the correct reservation name details. Before I could even make the second payment; Boom! My refund hit my wallet… absolutely amazing! I was able to ... CoinAgenda Global, the self-described “premier global conference series for connecting investors, traders, family offices and digital currency funds with top entrepreneurs in blockchain and ... Bitcoin2014 conference is a huge part of the promotional direction. Being only the second conference in a row, organised by the Bitcoin Foundation, and having 30-40 conferences from the last year’s one, this event still holds the place of the #1 Bitcoin conference in the world. Just like Changpeng Zhao warned in advance, Bitcoin exchange Binance now decides to delist and cease trading on all trading pairs for Bitcoin SV (BCHSV) starting from April 22nd, 2019.
请为 Cortex 投票吧！ 社区的小伙伴大家好！ 今天，Cortex Labs团队宣布，CTXC将会参加数字货币交易所币安第九期免费上币投票活动。 投票时间：2018年 ... This video is unavailable. Watch Queue Queue. Watch Queue Queue Queue Los Angeles, CA- A lot of people are yelling about Binance- this shows you how many people are addicted to altcoin gambling and have no concept of the Bitcoin strong hand. The All-star panel made ... Binance considered rolling back the Bitcoin chain in order to recover stolen funds. How would that have happened? How likely is it that such a recovery method would be executed in the future? Banking Giant ING is exploring crypto custody. Binance launches Latin American fiat gateway. Christine Lagarde says central banks will accelerate taskforce on digital Click "SHOW MORE" for ... THIS STREAM IS ONLY TO SHARE MY PASSION FOR TECHNICAL ANALYSIS***#Bitcoin #BTC #Live. Autoplay When autoplay is enabled, a suggested video will automatically play next. Up next Heart - Stairway to ... Leslie from Binance Trading walks you through the first report of Binance Research’s new portfolio management research series. The report concludes that portfolios that include Bitcoin tend to ... Santiago, Chile- I will be speaking at a Bitcoin conference in New Orleans in early December. Is Bitcoin mankind's biggest experiment? Bitfinex premium. Bina... Binance Futures https: ... #Bitcoin #Economy #Dow. Loading... Autoplay When autoplay is enabled, a suggested video will automatically play next. Up next Ray Dalio on the Economy, Pandemic, China's ... Jared Tate's talk at the London Digibyte meet up. Subscribe here and stay bullish. Don't forget to hit the bell icon to get an Instant notification for our new videos. Follow us on twitter https ...